Did you know that more than for their beauty, they essentially arose in popularity to help speed up production during construction by hiding or masking low quality work and-or imperfections in the finish? Popcorn ceilings are a perfect example as I've seen more than an inch deep applied on some ceilings.
There are many Texture Types, but remember there are no limits to what you can use to create a custom texture, such as rollers, sponges, brush's, and other exotic tool textures. Listed below are the typical textures you might see today.
This texture is very small to small droplets of texture, uniformly sprayed, leaving the background exposed.
Splatter or Orange-Peel Texture:
This texture is very small to small droplets of texture, uniformly sprayed, completely covering the background.
Same application as above, but the droplets are flattened before drying.
The most typical brush texture is the "Stomp" or "Crowsfoot", but there are many things you can do to customize the pattern to meet your desires, such as swirling or circles.
Tool & Knife Texture's:
There are hundreds of patterns that can be achieved with a trowel of knife, that can provide a beautiful, custom finish to your walls and ceilings.